Why Union Territories exist in India?| Union Territories and their Capitals


India is a federal nation the place the ruling powers are distributed among the many Central Authorities and the State Governments. As per Article 1 of the Indian Structure, India is a Union of States and never a federation of states. 

As per Article 3 of the Indian Structure, the Union Authorities has the facility to kind a State, enhance or lower the scale of any State, and alter the boundaries or title of any State. 

When the Structure of India was adopted in 1949, the Indian federal construction included:

1- Half A: Former British India provinces that had a Governor and a legislature. 

2- Half B: The previous Princely States that had been ruled by a Rajpramukh.

3- Half C: Chief Commissioners’ provinces and a few princely states that had been ruled by Chief Commissioner. 

In all of the above-mentioned classes, the directors had been appointed by the President of India.  

4- Half D: Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands that was ruled by a Lieutenant Governor who was appointed by the Central Authorities.

After the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, Half C and Half D states had been mixed right into a single class of ‘Union Territory’. The idea of the UT was added by the  Structure (Seventh Modification) Act, 1956.

Historical past and date of formation of Indian states since 1947

At the moment, there have been solely 6 Union Territories:

1- Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2- Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands (later renamed Lakshadweep)
3- Delhi
4- Manipur
5- Tripura
6- Himachal Pradesh

Why had been Union Territories fashioned?

In 1954, Puducherry was merged into the Republic of India after attaining independence from French Rule and have become the Union Territory of Puducherry.  In 1963, Puducherry was granted the standing of Partial Statehood. 

In 1961, Daman and Diu and Goa had been merged into the Republic of India, after attaining independence from Portuguese Rule. In 1987, Goa was granted the standing of Statehood and have become the first Union Territory to obtain such standing. In 2020, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu had been merged right into a single Union Territory referred to as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. 

Within the early Seventies, Manipur, Tripura and Himachal Pradesh had been granted the standing of Statehood. Chandigarh grew to become a Union Territory.

Delhi was earlier a State. On 27 March 1952, the first Delhi Legislative Meeting elections had been held on 48 seats. Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Yadav was the primary CM of Delhi. Nonetheless, after the State Reorganisation Act of 1956, Delhi misplaced its Statehood and have become a UT. In 1991,  Partial Statehood standing was granted to the Union Territory of Delhi and it got here to be referred to as the Nationwide Capital Territory of Delhi. 

In 2019, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 was handed by the Indian Parliament and it reconstituted the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories– UT of Jammu and Kashmir and UT of Ladakh. 

What’s the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Invoice, 2019?

What are Union Territories (UTs)?

Union Territories (UTs) are the federal territories and are administered by the Union Authorities of India. Within the Union Territories, Lieutenant Governors are appointed by the President of India who serves as their directors. 

Nonetheless, Puducherry, Jammu and Kashmir and Delhi are the exception on this regard and have an elected legislature and authorities because of the standing of partial statehood which was granted to them beneath the particular Constitutional Modification. 

At current, India has 8 Union Territories (UTs) Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry.

Forms of Union Territories in India

There are two forms of Union Territories in India. These are:

1- Union Territories with Legislature— Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Puducherry. 

2- Union Territories with out Legislature— Andaman and Nicobar, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Ladakh, and Lakshadweep. 

It’s to be famous that the Union Territories haven’t any separate illustration within the Rajya Sabha (Higher Home) apart from Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Puducherry.  

Want for Union Territories in India

The idea of Union Territory was first launched within the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. It refers to these territories which might be too small to be impartial or are too completely different (economically, culturally and geographically) to be merged with the encircling states or are financially weak or are politically unstable. As a result of aforementioned causes, they could not survive as separate administrative items and should be administered by the Union Authorities. 

Why Union Territories exist in India?

1- Apart from Delhi, Union Territories have much less inhabitants and land measurement as in comparison with a state. Thus, these are too small to be impartial and are administered by Union Authorities (apart from Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and Puducherry).
 
2- Most of the Union Territories have a completely different tradition than their surrounding States as they had been earlier beneath the rule of Portuguese (Daman and Diu) and French (Puducherry). Therefore, these UTs can’t be merged with the encircling states. 

3- Delhi is the executive capital of India whereas Chandigarh is the executive capital of each Haryana and Punjab. 

4- Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands are positioned removed from mainland India. Thus, they’re strategically necessary to India and in case of any emergency, the Indian authorities can instantly act there.

Union Territories and their Capitals

Union Territory Capital Date of Institution Lt. Governor/Administrator
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair 1 November 1956 Admiral D. Ok. Joshi (Lieutenant Governor)
Chandigarh Chandigarh 1 November 1966 V.P. Singh Badnore (Administrator)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman 26 January 2020 Praful Patel (Administrator)
Delhi New Delhi 1 November 1956 Anil Baijal (Lieutenant Governor)
Jammu and Kashmir Sri Nagar (Summer time) Jammu (Winter) 31 October 2019 Manoj Sinha (Lieutenant Governor)
Ladakh Leh (Summer time) Kargil (Winter) 31 October 2019 Radha Krishna Mathur (Lieutenant Governor)
Lakshadweep Kavaratti 1 November 1956 Praful Patel (Administrator)
Puducherry Puducherry 16 August 1962 Dr. Tamilisai Soundararajan (Addl. Cost) (Lieutenant Governor)

Information on Union Territories:

1- Andaman and Nicobar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, and Puducherry have Lieutenant Governors. 

2- Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep have Directors.

3- V.P. Singh Badnore is the Governor of Punjab in addition to Administrator of Union Territory of Chandigarh.

4- In 2020, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu had been merged right into a single UT and are administered by Praful Patel. The merged Union Territory is called Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. 

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Merger Invoice, 2019

5- As per Article 239, the President of India is the Chief Administrator of the Union Territories.

Distinction between a State and Union Territory

1- State is a constituent division and has its personal elected authorities that has the powers to border legal guidelines whereas a Union Territory is a small administrative unit and is dominated by the Union Authorities apart from Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and Puducherry. 

2- An Indian State enjoys a federal relationship with the Union Authorities and the legislative and government powers are distributed whereas a Union Territory has a unitary relationship with the Union Authorities and all of the legislative and government powers reside with the Authorities of India. 

3- A Governor is the constitutional head of the State whereas the President of India is the manager head of the Union Territory. 

4- The Chief Minister elected by the individuals administers the State whereas the Union Territory is run by an administrator or Lieutenant Governor appointed by the President of India. 

5- States are a lot bigger in measurement compared with the Union Territories. 

6- States take pleasure in autonomous powers whereas the Union Territories shouldn’t have autonomous powers.

What’s the distinction between State and Union Territory in India?

India has 28 StatesAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. 

Record of Lt. Governors & Directors of the Union Territories of India



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