Redlines Of Id, Safety And Governance – Evaluation – Eurasia Overview


Lakshadweep, the Indian Archipelago within the southwest Arabian Sea—the smallest Union Territory (UTL) of India—is within the throes of an existential disaster rising from a spate of administrative orders and laws. The disaster additionally spills over into the mainland, and the south Indian state of Kerala is evidently frightened concerning the unfolding state of affairs as a result of its historic and cultural hyperlinks with the Island. The developments resulting in a close to breakdown manifest within the type of human safety redlines compounded by multilevel threats to the Island’s fragile ecosystem. The UTL Administration’s controversial laws and their ‘cross conditionalities’ are more and more considered as ‘invitation to catastrophe’ as analysed earlier than (Seethi 2021). 

For a local inhabitants of almost 70,000—who reside in 11 of the 36 islands—the query of survival now relies on how the Union Authorities negotiates with the individuals, their representatives and different stakeholders of the Island within the coming days. Alongside this, the interior safety of Lakshadweep appears to naturally dovetail with the bigger safety dynamics of the mainland—from the perspective of India’s maritime safety and its Indian Ocean technique. At the same time as the present deadlock is to be addressed inside a framework of human and ecological safety of the Archipelago, the menace state of affairs from a broader perspective of India’s maritime governance structure can also be underscored. The position of Kerala within the making of India’s Lakshadweep coverage can also be very essential from totally different vantage factors. 

The persevering with predicament of the Archipelago will be analysed in relation to (i) the historical past of the worldwide and regional connectivity of the Islands;(ii) the postcolonial reorganisation and governance; and (iii) India’s recalibrated maritime safety. Insofar because the query of ‘boundary-sovereignty’ is actually part of the post-Westphalian engagement of worldwide relations, the ‘inside/outdoors’ problematic of small states and islands must be engaged from a much wider degree, past a state-centric framework This might add some substance to the discourses already underway even because the individuals within the Archipelago are caught in a Catch-22 scenario with the state of Kerala throwing its full weight behind the disgruntled inhabitants of the Island. 

International/Regional Connectivity 

Lakshadweep (previously Laccadive), like different islands the world over, functioned kind of as a part of the colonial safety aperture or corridors of the colonial growth in southern Asia. Many islands within the Indian Ocean and the Pacific had been the appendages of the imperialist metropolises within the days of the colonial growth in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Lakshadweep additionally needed to curl up with the vestige of this ‘international dynamics’ of the European colonial powers. Earlier than the arrival of the colonial powers, and in brief intervals throughout the colonial interval, the Islands had been run and managed from the Malabar coast—which is now a part of Kerala.

The Island’s early engagements with the worldwide dynamics of Islam and the Arab commerce had been shrouded in cryptic occasions, legends and traditions. The early human settlement, in response to colonial data, was about 1200 years in the past when individuals from the Malabar coast (now a part of Kerala) had reached the Islands. Writing in Logan’s Malabar Handbook (vol II), V. Chappu Menon famous that the “first occupation” was associated to “an accident” referred to by Robinson, Head Assistant Collector of Malabar. Menon says: “A convention is preserved amongst them that their forefathers fashioned a part of an expedition from Malaya, which set out for Mecca seeking their apostate King, Cheraman Perumal, and was wrecked on these islands. The inhabitants definitely remained Hindus lengthy after their first settlement and had been most likely transformed to Islam no more than 250 or 300 years again” (Logan vol. II  1887/2000: ccIxxv). Robinson, nonetheless, wrote that although the “earlier and partial occupation” was “attributed to accident”, “appreciable voluntary immigration” had “additionally taken place, particularly of the decrease lessons from the coast” (Robinson 1874: 9). He additional famous, the traditions of the islanders indicated that “even throughout the early centuries their ancestors carried on an energetic commerce with the coast of India and the extra distant harbours of Cutch and Arabia.” The islanders embraced Islam “at some interval subsequent to the thirteenth century” (Ibid:10). The legend of Shiekh Ubaidullah (a seventh century Arab saint) having reached the Island following a shipwreck and began preaching Islam within the islands was additionally very robust. However there are not any genuine historic evidences to show that Islam had arrived within the Island within the seventh century. 

With the arrival of the Portuguese on the Malabar coast—by the late fifteenth century—Laccadive started to realize some prominence for seafarers. That was the time when, as Menon wrote, “the islanders had been most likely at all times kind of depending on the princess of the Kolathiri household and the admirals of their fleets, the progenitors of the Mappila home of Cannanore” now in Kerala (Logan vol. II  1887/2000: ccIxxv). With the arrival of the Portuguese, the sample of spice commerce shifted and the Europeans started to carry sway over the Arab merchants. Initially, the rulers of Calicut (Zamorin) welcomed the Portuguese, however encounters with them turned inevitable when the Portuguese resorted to ruthless practices by marginalising the Muslim merchants. Henry Menezes who succeeded Vasco da Gama as Viceroy additionally took measures to stifle the commerce of native communities via power, cut price and pressures (Logan vol. I 1887/2000: 325).  

As Zamorin didn’t yield to the pressures of the Portuguese, conflicts intensified. Thus, one in all India’s first native resistances towards colonial forces began off right here on the Malabar coast. Zamorin’s naval commander, the Kunjali Marakkar, led the naval warfare towards the Portuguese from 1507 to 1600 and Marakkar held the credit score of spearheading the primary naval defence of the Indian coast. 

Writing on this historical past of resistance towards the Portuguese, Shaykh Zainuddin Makhdum famous that in this era “the accursed Portuguese began out in offended temper to despoil Adhraja of his islands (Laccadives) in Malabar. The Portuguese went of their corvettes and attacked the island of Amini the place they killed numerous inhabitants, captured greater than 4 hundred women and men, plundered nearly every thing of worth, and burnt many homes and mosques. Earlier than they descended upon Amini, they went to Shaytlakam (Chetlatt) the place they slew among the individuals and captured some.” He stated: “The inhabitants in all these islands had been blind to the usage of weapons, and there was none competent to struggle. However this, numerous the individuals fought towards the enemy and fell as martyrs” (Makhdum 2009: 79-80). Makhdum tried to painting this as a part of the Islamic Jihad

After the encounter in 1545, the Portuguese had been “exterminated by poison owing to the intrigues of the Kolathiri princes,” Menon wrote (Logan vol. II  1887/2000: ccIxxv). The islands then got here below the Arakkal household of Cannanore. Even because the Amindivi group of islands fell into the palms of Tipu Sultan, the Laccadive group of islands, corresponding to Kavaratti, Agatti, and Andrott, was managed by the Arakkal household. When Tipu was killed in 1799—within the battle with the British in Seringapatam—the islands got here below the British East Indian Firm (Logan vol. I 1887/2000: 526).   

For the islanders, the British rule was not as oppressive as that of the Portuguese; but, it exhibited all of the traits of the colonial administration with manipulation and appropriation of assets persevering with as elsewhere within the mainland. In the meantime the administration introduced within the Lacaadive Islands and Minicoy Regulation 1912 which granted restricted energy of judicial and magisterial standing to Amins/Karanis of the islands (Innes 1915).  

Although social life within the Island was comparatively peaceable (with Islam being the faith of the bulk), the caste hierarchy and problems with discrimination had been reported every now and then. This was primarily as a result of legacy of social stratification imported from the Malabar coast the place caste hierarchy was prevalent among the many Hindus. Curiously, the islanders who embraced Islam didn’t shed ‘norms’ of social hierarchisation. Consequently, the three sections of Muslims within the Island—Koyas, Malmis, and Melacheris—carried the burden of caste rigidities with the Koyas exercising the position of higher ‘castes’((Logan vol. II  1887/2000: ccIxxiv). 

Even because the nationalist motion gathered momentum within the mainland in early twentieth century, there was not a lot political exercise heard from the Islands. Nor had been there any specific difficulty or repercussions reported in relation to the Malabar rise up (1921-22) towards the British which ultimately marred the perceptions of Hindu-Muslim relations within the state. Although the island was primarily of the Muslim inhabitants, there was hardly any sympathy for or solidarity with the thought of ‘Muslim nationalism’ (Pakistan motion. There have been stories that even the painful moments of partition didn’t discover any reflection within the Island, most likely as a result of inaccessibility and lack of communication. Nonetheless, the phrases of the territorial division of the Indian subcontinent didn’t instantly apply to the way forward for the 2 British-controlled islands—Laccadive and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands. That naturally extended the future of the islands from the purpose of their id and governance. 

Postcolonial Id and Governance 

Id and governance turned a persistent concern of many postcolonial states. This discovered a visual expression in ‘multi-cultural’ and ‘multi-territorial’ states like India and Pakistan. The Indian Independence Act, 1947 didn’t have any direct provisions coping with the way forward for these Islands below the colonial management, besides the clauses averring the lapse of British paramountcy and the future of princely states. Being strategically situated, and having circuitously appeared within the partition plan, Laccadive and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands would have given a respiration time for all stakeholders to consider their future. Laccadive having extra administrative and maritime contacts with the Malabar coast (as a part of the Madras Presidency) had higher probabilities to strive its future with Kerala. However that didn’t occur aside from some transient administrative preparations. 

In the meantime there have been stories a few Pakistan try in August 1947 “to annex the Laccadive.” Although there have been tales and statements in circulation after a number of years, no genuine data had been out there to confirm this.  A Lahore-based newspaper The Friday Instances carried a narrative on 9 August 2019 by Fateh-ul-Mulk Ali Nasir wherein the writer stated that “Pakistan missed a chance within the Laccadives in 1947.” He stated that had Pakistan captured the Island, it “would have had an oceanic outpost near the equator. The geostrategic and defence advantages would have been immense and Pakistan would even have tropical island vacation spot that may rival the Maldives as a touristic haven.” Ali Nasir wrote that Lakshadweep was “the one Muslim-majority constituent unit in India”, but it was “missed by the All India Muslim League and later the newly fashioned Authorities of Pakistan.” Nonetheless, there have been stories that Liaquat Ali Khan sought “to make this distant and tropical archipelago a southern extension of Pakistan within the Indian Ocean” and therefore tried “to take management of the islands in August 1947.” Based on Ali Nasir, Pakistan would have come to find out about this Muslim majority Island from the “Malabari Muslim group in Karachi” who had been concerned within the spice commerce at the moment. Then the Royal Pakistan Navy had apparently despatched a frigate from Karachi. Nonetheless, by that point, Sardar Patel, India’s deputy prime minister and residential minister, had acted swiftly to make sure the Island’s integration with India (Nasir 2019). 

After two months of the Friday Instances story, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his fifth episode of the radio programme—Mann Ki Baat 2.0—on 27 October 2019 acknowledged that Sardar Patel “performed a much more vital position” within the integration of Lakshadweep with India.  He stated that Pakistan “had solid an eye fixed on Lakshadweep; a ship bearing their flag was despatched there.” As quickly as Patel got here to find out about it, “he wasted no time in initiating stern motion.”  Modi stated Patel had instantly “urged the Mudaliar brothers—Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar and Arcot Laxman Swamy Mudaliar—to right away undertake a mission with individuals of Travancore to Lakshadweep and take the lead in unfurling the Tricolour there.” Following his orders, they promptly hoisted the Indian flag within the islands and the purpose of Pakistan was thus “decimated inside no time.” Modi additionally stated that Patel then sought to make sure all help for the event of Lakshadweep (India, Press Info Bureau 2019).  

Within the post-independence interval, Lakshadweep, nonetheless, witnessed a number of modifications on the administrative, authorized and different ranges. S.Y. Krishnaswamy Report (1955) recorded a complete profile of those modifications. The Report underlined the truth that despite the geographical distance from, and inaccessibility to, the mainland, the islanders had been, not at all, backward and their human relations had been significantly better than that of the mainland. Whereas the inhabitants had been ethnically coherent (all converse Malayalam besides in Minicoy), their intra-island contacts remained minimal, in comparison with their contacts with the mainland. This had resulted in several native customs and cultural practices—a few of them had even entwined with the caste hierarchy resulting in discrimination. The Krishnaswamy Report indicated that inter-island variances may very well be seen within the legal guidelines of inheritance, landlord-tenant relations and marriage customs. Insofar as Krishnaswamy recommended many measures for the Island’s progress and well-being, the Report was thought-about because the harbinger of modernisation. It additionally advisable measures like enhancing linkages and interplay with the mainland, corresponding to common ship service and many others (delivery frequently started throughout 1958-59). 

Nonetheless, the Island’s constitutional linkage with the mainland was nonetheless undecided, however the enactment of the Indian Structure in 1950. The uncertainly continued, not less than, till the states’ reorganisation course of started. In the meantime, the union authorities exercised huge powers via the forms and its delegated powers, notably within the absence of a legislature. The Nehru Authorities had appointed a ‘States Reorganisation Fee’ in December 1953 (with Fazal Ali, Ok. M. Panikkar and H. N. Kunzru as members). The Fee submitted its Report in 1955. It might be famous that the Report of the States Reorganisation Fee, having thought-about the claims and opinion of all stakeholders, advisable that insofar because the Laccadive Islands already kind a part of the Malabar district, “the Amindive group must also fashioned a part of the possible Kerala State.” The Report additionally famous, “It was an accident that the Amindives ever got here to be connected to South Kanara. It will be fascinating and handy, if the long run Kerala State had been administratively in command of all of the islands, together with the Amindive group” (India, Ministry of House Affairs 1955: 86).  

Although the Commissionwas very clear on its strategy on the way forward for the islands, The States Reorganisation Act, 1956—to the dismay of Kerala and the individuals of the islands—rejected the advice and proclaimed: “there shall be fashioned a [Union territory] to be often known as the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands comprising the Laccadive and Minicoy Islands within the Malabar district and the Amindivi Islands within the South Kanara district; and thereupon the stated Islands shall stop to kind a part of the present State of Madras (India, Legislative Division 1956: 6). The brand new UT was positioned below an Administrator whose Headquarters firstly had been situated at Kozhikode (Calicut) which had been later moved to Kavaratti island in 1964. Even after that, the UT administration has workplaces at Calicut, Kochi and Mangalore for procurement of shops, co-ordination of transport together with reservation of ship passage. Following this, the Excessive Courtroom of Kerala, situated at Kochi was additionally designated because the Excessive Courtroom for the whole Union Territory.

Plausibly, the standing of the Island as a Union Territory was decided by India’s maritime pursuits within the Arabian Sea, and the stories of the concern of a ‘communist upsurge’ within the island had been extra of an exaggerated hype. Although the primary communist authorities bought elected to energy in Kerala in 1957, there was hardly any vital political exercise within the Island for a number of years even after independence. And no matter political sympathy and ideological orientation that existed within the Island was ostensibly in the direction of the Indian Nationwide Congress. The primary common election for the lone Parliament seat was held in 1967 and it was received by the Congress candidate P.M. Sayeed, and he continued to get elected to Parliament for 3 many years. Since 1956, the UT of Lakshadweep has been below the rule of a centrally appointed Administrator and all of them had been senior bureaucrats until December 2020, when the current Administrator, Praful Khoda Patel, took cost. Patel is a full-time politician who had earlier served as dwelling minister of Gujarat. Murkoth Ramunny (1961-65), Omesh Saigal (1982-85), Wajahat Habibullah (1987-90) et al. had been among the environment friendly directors in Lakshadweep. Nonetheless, there have been emotions of disillusionment among the many those who the UT didn’t have a legislature of its personal. This was additionally mirrored in a report of a Parliamentary committee manner again in 1990-91 (India, Ministry of House Affairs 1990). 

With the enactment of the Structure (73rd Modification) Act, 1992 the Lakshadweep Panchayats Regulation, 1994 was promulgated by the President of India on 23 April 1994 and the provisions of the Regulation turned relevant in Lakshadweep on 23 Could 1995. As per the primary schedule of the Regulation there have been 10 village (Dweep) Panchayats, one in every of the inhabited ten islands and a District Panchayat for the entire of Lakshadweep. 

The primary Village (Dweep) Panchayats had been arrange in December 2002 and the District Panchayat in January 2003 (Lakshadweep, Directorate of Census Operations 2011). The PRIs had been functioning with out a lot downside all these years and it was with the draft notification of The Lakshadweep Panchayat Regulation, 2021 in February this yr that a lot of the favored resentment and resistance swelled. They concern that no matter autonomy and energy that existed earlier than are being taken away for a brand new dispensation of governance and growth within the Island. The agitating individuals argue that this sample change has been necessitated by the centrally sponsored agenda of remodeling Lakshadweep right into a vacationer hub of huge corporates, an entire mismatch for the ecologically delicate Archipelago.  

Securitisation of Lakshadweep

Admittedly, Lakshadweep’s location within the Arabian Sea makes it strategically necessary for India. Traditionally, this has been understood by the Arab merchants, European colonial powers and lots of nations within the Asia-Pacific area. Ambassador Ok.M. Panikkar—who was additionally an Indian historian—wrote that the Indian Ocean was a “important sea” for India and its “life traces are concentrated in that space” (Panikkar 1951: 85). Panikkar had foreseen that the “Laccadives within the Arabian Sea and the Andamans and the Nicobars within the Bay of Bengal (amongst others) have an important bearing on maritime historical past” (Ibid: 20). Panikkar additional reminded that the “possession of the Andamans and the Nicobars provides to India strategic bases which if totally utilised in coordination with air energy can convert the Bay of Bengal right into a safe space. The place in respect of the Arabian sea is nonetheless totally different. The Laccadives present a protecting barrier and among the islets within the group be transformed into “heligolands,” impregnable from the perspective of defence however hardly helpful as naval bases” (Ibid: 96). 

Ambassador Panikkar’s considerate evaluation and recommendations didn’t discover any vital coverage reception on the highest degree even after the wars with China in 1962, and with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971. Nonetheless, the 1971 warfare—notably after the deployment of the US Seventh Fleet USS Enterprise within the Bay of Bengalwas a reminder to New Delhi that the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal may very well be important for the nation’s maritime safety. But, it took one other decade for India to understand that India’s Navy, Airforce and Coast Guard ought to have a coordinated technique in defending the pursuits of the nation alongside the coast in addition to throughout Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar. In the meantime India outlined its maritime zones with the Presidential proclamations and Maritime Zones of India Act of 1976 (Singh and Seethi 2010: 22-23). The developments within the Nineteen Eighties and Nineteen Nineties—notably in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives—had been additional reminders to New Delhi {that a} effectively deliberate maritime coverage couldn’t be delayed additional. Students and coverage analysts additionally alerted that India should “come out of the standard ‘continental’ (land-oriented) mindset and evolve a maritime mindset” (Ibid: 33). 

Nonetheless, the Mumbai terror assaults on 26 November 2008 got here like a wake-up name for India. B.Ok. Loshali of the Indian Coast Guard (ICG), Kochi wrote: “the islands and sandbars, which dot the coast, present good hideaways for infiltrators and contraband.” He warned that the “adjoining uninhabited islands in Lakshadweep pose actual hazard to the coast of Kerala (Loshali 2010: 153). After 2008, the Authorities of India started to pay higher consideration to the developments throughout India’s coastal areas, together with in Lakshadweep. Whereas Navy set out its operations from Kochi and different areas, the Indian Coast Guard started to take care of Lakshadweep with its District Headquarters at Kavaratti.

In one other few years’ time, the Indian Navy had commissioned a brand new naval base at Kavaratti with a view to augmenting safety infrastructure at Lakshadweep. The Navy has already been working a detachment at Kavaratti since early eighties. With the commissioning of INS Dweeprakshak, the Archipelago would discover “calibrated strengthening of belongings” according to their rising relevance to the safety structure of India.  Since then Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands had been seen as strategically necessary and the Southern Naval Command headquartered at Kochi has been guaranteeing safety in and across the space. With the rise in piracy actions at sea, the Indian Navy additionally undertook many steps to extend surveillance and enhance the safety across the space via capability constructing and enhanced naval presence in and across the island territories.  With the organising of a Naval Detachment at Androth Island in 2016, the Navy’s attain and surveillance had been additional enhanced, and thereby contributed considerably to strengthen India’s maritime safety and stability. 

Although there have been no situations of Lakshadweep islands being utilized by non-state actors or unlawful peddlers, the ICG and Navy used to deal with situations of Somali pirates actions within the western Indian Ocean which pointed to the menace to the Sea Strains of Communications (SLOCs) generally and to the Lakshadweep Islands specifically. The rising incidents of piracy in and across the Islands added a brand new dimension to menace perceptions concerning the Eight Diploma Channel that separates the islands of Minicoy and Maldives in addition to the 9 Diploma Channel that separates the island of Minicoy from the principle Lakshadweep Archipelago. 

After some the incidents in 2015, the ICG additionally started to coach the fishermen as “eyes and ears in Neighborhood Interplay Programme” and, in response to the ICG, intelligence inputs from Police businesses for coastal safety assemble had paid wealthy dividend, and resulted in apprehension of a number of boats concerned in such actions. This was seen for instance of how coordinated efforts by all stakeholders related in coastal safety mechanism helped stop unlawful actions in India’s maritime zones.

It was within the background of those incidents previously few years that the ICG confiscated 300 kg heroin and 5 AK 47 rifles from a Sri Lankan fishing boat that was, in response to the Collector of Lakshadweep on 27 Could, passing via the ocean “alongside one of many Islands.” Whereas the Collector clearly sought to securitise the entire difficulty within the context of the rising tide of opposition to the Administration’s current orders, the ICG had made no indication of the reference to Lakshadweep, as is obvious from the official press launch of 31 March (India, Press Info Bureau 2021). 

In the meantime, the stories concerning the US Navy’s Freedom of Navigation Operation (FONOP) within the Indian Ocean area on 7 April, with its warship venturing into India’s Unique Financial Zone (EEZ) close to Lakshadweep (evidently with out India’s permission) brought on irritants in New Delhi. What infuriated India was the US Navy’s declare that the operation was carried out in accordance with worldwide regulation and thereby questioned India’s ‘extreme’ maritime claims.  Although students and consultants started to interpret the occasion within the background of America’s Indo-Pacific technique and India’s recalibrated ties with Washington, questions of sovereignty and territorial in addition to maritime boundary continued to have a bearing on, what Ok.M. Panikkar known as, India’s “lifelines” within the area. Whereas such questions stay pertinent within the context of India’s new maritime technique, Lakshadweep can’t be made a scapegoat of misguided notions of ‘safety’ and ‘growth,’ in response to many consultants. 

The controversial laws and administrative orders foisted on the individuals will solely complicate the bigger safety structure of the Archipelago. The brand new surveillance measures insisted on by the administration (in fishing boats and passenger and cargo ships) can solely alienate the individuals from the administration. The truth is, the ICG and the Navy have way more complete and complicated mechanisms of safety and surveillance within the area and there may be hardly any want for extra augmentation of safety. That is notably necessary when the ICG itself sees the native communities as “eyes and ears” of the Island’s safety. The individuals of Lakshadweep at the moment are way more frightened about their livelihood safety and its broader milieu of ecosystem safety. They know that this can’t be ensured by extra mechanisms of management and coercion via administrative hegemony. The considerations raised in Kerala are equally professional given its historic connectivity with the Archipelago and the position that the state’s geopolitics has performed, over many years, in sustaining the Island’s safety and welfare. 

References 

India, Legislative Division (1956): The States Reorganisation Act, 1956, https://legislative.gov.in/websites/default/information/A1956-37.pdf

India, Ministry of House Affairs (1955): Report of the States Reorganisation Fee, 1955, https://www.mha.gov.in/websites/default/information/Statepercent20Reorganisationpercent20Commisisonpercent20Reportpercent20ofpercent201955_270614.pdf

India, Ministry of House Affairs (1990): Lakshadweep, First Report Estimates Committee (1990-91) (Ninth Lok Sabha), New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat, https://eparlib.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/58322/1/ec_09_01_1990.pdf

India, Press Info Bureau (2019): “PM’s tackle within the fifth Episode of ‘Mann Ki Baat 2.0’ on 27.10.2019,” https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1589328

India, Press Info Bureau (2021): “Sri Lankan boat intercepted with 300 kg of Heroin together with big amount of arms and ammunition in Indian water,” 31 March, https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1708672

Innes, C. A (1915): Madras District Gazetteers: Malabar and Anjengo, Vol. 1., edited by F.B. Evans, Madras: Authorities Press. 

Krishnaswami, S. Y. (1955): Report of the Particular Inspecting Officer of the Laccadive and Amindivi Islands. G. O., no. 1453. Madras: Authorities of Madras. 

Logan, William (1887/2000): William Logan’s Malabar Handbook, Vol.1 and Vol. 11, New Version with Commentaries, ed. P J Cherian, Thiruvananthapuram: Authorities of Kerala. 

Loshali, B.Ok. (2010): “Coastal Safety: Put up 26/11 A Relook,” in Ok.R. Singh and Ok.M. Seethi(eds.), Costal Safety: Wanted A New Look, Kottayam: KPS Menon Chair for Diplomatic Research. 

Makhdum, Shaykh Zainuddin (2009): Tuhfat al-Mujāhidīn: A Historic Epic of the Sixteenth Century, translated from the Arabic with notes by S. Muhammad Husayn Nainar, Kuala Lumpur/Calicut: Islamic Ebook Belief/Different Books. 

Nasir, Fateh-ul-Mulk Ali (2019): “How Pakistan could have Misplaced an Island Paradise,” The Friday Instances, 9 August, https://www.thefridaytimes.com/how-pakistan-may-have-lost-an-island-paradise/

Panikkar Ok.M. (1951): India and the Indian Ocean, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.  

Robinson, W. (1874):  Report on the Laccadive Islands, dated nineteenth Could 1848 by W. Robinson, ESQ, Head Assistant Collector, Malabar: Authorities Press. 

Seethi, Ok.M. (2021): “Simmering Discontent in Lakshadweep: Narratives and Actuality – Evaluation,” Eurasia Overview, 1 June, https://www.eurasiareview.com/01062021-simmering-discontent-in-lakshadweep-narratives-and-reality-analysis/ 

Singh, Ok.R. and Ok.M. Seethi (eds.) (2010): Costal Safety: Wanted A New Look, Kottayam: KPS Menon Chair for Diplomatic Research. 

Union Territory of Lakshadweep, Directorate of Census Operations (2011):  Census of India 2011, Lakshadweep, series-32 PART XII-A, https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/31/3101_PART_A_DCHB_LAKSHADWEEP.pdf 



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