How have been the states organised after India grew to become a republic?
When the structure got here into power on January 26, 1950, India grew to become a union of states (earlier referred to as provinces) with intensive autonomy and a few territories administered by the central authorities. Underneath the structure, there have been three sorts of states -nine Half A states, eight Half B states and 10 Half C states. Half A states have been former governors’ provinces in British India -Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Bombay , Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Orissa, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Half B comprised the previous princely states of Hyderabad, Saurashtra, Mysore, Travancore-Cochin, Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Half C states included a number of princely states in addition to former provinces ruled by chief commissioners akin to Kutch, Himachal Pradesh, Coorg, Manipur and Tripura. Jammu & Kashmir had particular standing. Aside from the states, there have been half D territories. The States Reorganisation Act, 1956, abolished the three classes of states whereas the territories partly D have been termed Union territories.
What was the standing of Delhi throughout British rule?
Earlier than turning into the capital of India, Delhi was generally known as the Imperial Delhi Property and was a part of the province of Punjab. After the announcement of the shifting of the capital from Kolkata, the Governor Normal took Delhi underneath his instant authority. The Delhi Legal guidelines Act, 1912, got here into power and the administration of the territory of Delhi went underneath a chief commissioner. Delhi was made a separate province generally known as the Province of Delhi.
What was the standing after independence?
Like different provinces ruled by the chief commissioner, Delhi too grew to become a Half-C state.
The structure offered that these states could be administered by the President via a chief commissioner, however Parliament might create an area legislature and excessive courts in these states. In 1951, Parlia ment enacted the Authorities of Half C States Act, 1951, to let some Half C states have legislatures and councils of ministers. The States Reorganisation Commis sion later recommended that these Half C states must be both made Union territories or merged with different states. Whereas others obtained merged, six UTs have been created -Delhi, Himachal Pra desh, Manipur, Tripura, Anda man & Nicobar Islands and Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands (Lakshadweep). Subsequently Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman & Diu, Pondicherry and Chandigarh additionally grew to become UTs. A few of them later grew to become states.
How are Delhi and Puducherry completely different from different UTs?
In response to Article 239 of the structure, each UT is to be administrated by the President via an administrator appointed by himher. There are, nonetheless, particular provisions for Puducherry and Delhi as they’re allowed to elect legislative assemblies and have councils of ministers with some legislative independence. For Delhi, article 239AA states that the meeting may have energy to make legal guidelines on all the things besides regulation and order, land and the appointment of bureaucrats, as these powers are with the central authorities. There’s a clause that states that the place there’s a distinction of opinion between the LG and the ministers, the LG can refer the difficulty to the President and act in line with the President’s determination, overruling the council of ministers.That is what the Delhi excessive court docket lately reiterated.
How are different nationwide capitals ruled?
In lots of nations, the nationwide capital has a unique standing t from different states. The US capital elects a mayor and council, , however Congress retains the proper to evaluation and overturn legal guidelines created by it. The Higher Lon don Authority too has an electf ed mayor and meeting. Al although the mayor has govt energy over transport, policing, financial growth and so forth, the nationwide authorities can step in and take management if it feels the mayor isn’t fulfilling the function.The German capital, alternatively, enjoys the same t standing as different states.